Intranasal Antifungal Therapy in Patients with Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: An Observational Analysis

Joseph Brewer, Dennis Hooper, Shalini Muralidhar


Exposure to mycotoxin producing mold and mycotoxins can be associated with numerous adverse health consequences. We previously reported that patients with chronic illness frequently had a history of prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold. Additionally, the vast majority of these patients had mycotoxins present in the urine. We have postulated that the mycotoxin producing molds were likely harbored internally in the sinuses of these patients. In the present analysis, patients with chronic illness and a positive urine mycotoxin assay were treated with intranasal antifungal therapy, either amphotericin B (AMB) or itraconazole (ITR). AMB was associated with local (nasal) irritation adverse effects (AE) in 34% of the cases, which resulted in discontinuation. In patients that remained on therapy without AE, we found that 94% improved clinically. Additionally, we found that the urine mycotoxin levels decreased substantially in patients that improved on therapy. Similar findings were seen with ITR, however the number of patients treated was much smaller.


Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Keep in Touch

Global Journals Android app is live

Get it on Google Play


Copyright © 2001-    by Global Journals Inc. (US) – All Rights Reserved. The use of this site, and the terms and conditions for our providing information, is governed by our Disclaimer, Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. By using this site, it signifies your acknowledgement that you have read them and that you accept and will be bound by all the terms thereof. All information, activities undertaken, materials, services and this website is subject to change anytime without any prior notice.

Best Viewed on FireFox Browsers with Flash Player and Resolution more than or equals 1024x768

USA Incorporation No.: 0423089  |  USA Tax ID (Employer ID No.): 098-0673227  |  License No.: 42125/022010/1186  |  Registration No.: 430374  |  Import-Export Code: 1109007027