Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Infective Endocarditis Due to a Leuconostoc Species: A Rare Presentation
Infective endocarditis (IE) is commonly caused by the hematogenous spread of various microorganisms that target the endocardium with staphylococci and streptococci accounting for the majority of cases. Due to the multitude of bacterial and even fungal pathogens, treatment options should be targeted specifically against microorganisms that are isolated in blood cultures. If an empiric antibiotic therapy is warranted, first-line treatment usually targets methicillin susceptible and resistant staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Although there is an important caveat, clinicians must consider when using vancomycin antibiotic therapy. L euconostoc is a genus of gram-positive bacteria, placed within the family of Lactobacillaceae, this type of bacteria, which can be found in green vegetables and are used in wine, cheese, and sugar production, is an uncommon cause of disease in human beings(1); these microorganisms have only recently been recognized as a potential cause of infection in a variety of patient populations(2)
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